BATGE was an activity that provided research on nitrous oxide (N2O) and the compound effects of nitrogen sinks. It focused on trace gas emissions from terrestrial systems. BATGE helped to gain understanding of what factors control these fluxes and assessed the effects of land use change. BATGE was part of IGAC’s Phase I Tropical Atmospheric Chemistry focus and later merged into IGAC’s Biosphere-Atmosphere Trace Gas Exchange (BATREX) activity.

Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in Climate was a focused effort to produce an assessment report that summarized the most current knowledge on black carbon (BC) and its role in climate as well as provide a best estimate and uncertainty range for the radiative forcing by BC. The report was published in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

DARF was initiated to determine the magnitude, uncertainty, chemical sources, and temporal and spatial variations of the direct radiative climate forcing by aerosols of various types, through observation as opposed to model output.

  • APARE aimed to understand processes controlling atmospheric chemistry in the rapidly developing East Asia region and the effects of airborne pollutants (ozone in particular) on downwind marine regions. APARE lead to a publication in a Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences in September 1995. More information regarding APARE and project results can be found here.

  • RICE measured the effects of rice cultivation in increasing the concentration of atmospheric methane and other trace gases. It gained an understanding of variability of methane emissions in time and place.

  • ACE-1, part of the larger ITCT initiative, was the first of a series of studies that analyzed the indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols through cloud modification. ACE-1 took place from October to December 1995 across the Pacific Ocean and south of Australia. The experiment focused on the minimally polluted marine atmosphere, creating an opportunity to be able to study the natural aerosol system and its chemical, physical, and radiative and cloud nucleating properties.

  • The Focus on Atmospheric Aerosols activity was initiated in 1995 as a result of the merging of the International Global Aerosol Program (IGAP) with IGAC. The principle objective was to improve understanding of the role of atmospheric aerosols in climate forcing and in the prediction of changes in global climate and geospheric-biospheric processes.

  • GLOCHEM sponsored several campaigns including the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment (MLOPEX). MLOPEX made concurrent measurements of the key species that play controlling roles in the photochemical transformation of ozone, odd nitrogen, and odd hydrogen species in the remote free troposphere. The results were published in JGR – Atmospheres. GLOCHEM also coordinated the Second Tropospheric Ozone (TROPOZ-II) activity, which measured chemically active gases in the free troposphere.

  • The GHOST activity was implemented in 2003. Its premise was built upon the need to understand the chemical importance and distribution of OH in the troposphere as well as explore whether the level OH abundance is due to natural processes versus man made disturbances.

  • GIM was formed as a merger project from the International Global Aerosol Program (IGAP) project MEARC in 1997 and was implemented under the IGAC Global Focus. GIM aimed to address the development and application of advanced 3-D global chemical transport and coupled climate and chemistry models, emphasizing tropospheric applications. It conducted a series of model intercomparison exercises focusing on key problems in tropospheric chemistry as well as collaborated with other modeling development efforts.